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Nd:YVO4

Nd:YVO4 crystal is currently the most efficient host material for DPSS, especially for low to middle power density. Nd:YVO4 surpasses Nd:YAG in terms of absorption and emission features. When pumped by laser diodes, Nd:YVO4 crystal can incorporate with high NLO coefficient crystals (KTP, BBO, LBO) to generate output frequency shifting from near infrared to green, blue, or even UV in solid state lasers. This incorporation to construct all solid state lasers is an ideal laser tool that can cover the most widespread applications of lasers, including machining, material processing, spectroscopy, wafer inspection, light displays, medical diagnostics, laser printing, and data storage, etc. It has been shown that Nd:YVO4 based diode pumped solid state lasers are rapidly occupying the markets traditionally dominated by water-cooled ion lasers and lamp-pumped lasers, especially when compact design and single-longitudinal-mode outputs are required.

The Advantages of Nd:YVO4 over Nd:YAG:

1. The absorption efficient of Nd:YVO4 is about four times higher than that of Nd:YAG over a wide pumping bandwidth around 808nm. Therefore, Nd:YVO4 has lower dependence on pumping wavelength and stronger tendency to generate single mode output.
2. The stimulated emission cross-section @1064nm of Nd:YVO4 is about two times higher than that of Nd:YAG.
3. Compared to Nd:YAG, Nd:YVO4 has lower lasing threshold and higher slope efficiency.
4. As a uniaxial crystal with large birefringence, the emission of Nd:YVO4 system is only linearly polarized.

THATSHIGH Provides Nd:YVO4 as following:

Various doping concentration from 0.1% to 3%.
Doping concentration tolerance:±0.05%(atm%<1%),±0.1%(atm%≥1%).
Various size bulk and finished high quality Nd:YVO4 crystals up to Φ35x50mm3 and Φ20x20mm3, respectively;
5,000 pcs of Nd:YVO4 devices per month in sizes 3x3x0.5 to 4x4x8 mm.
With quick delivery.
With competitive price.

Basic Properties of Nd:YVO4 Crystal

Atomic Density

1.26×1020 atoms/cm3 (Nd 1.0%)

Crystal Structure

Zircon tetragonal, Space group I41/amd  a=b=7.1193Å  c=6.2892Å 

Density

4.22 g·cm-3

Mohs Hardness

4~5 (Glass-like)

Thermal Expansion Coefficient (300K)

αa=4.43×10-6/K  αc=11.37×10-6/K 

Thermal Conductivity Coefficient (300K)

//C: 0.0523 W·cm-1·K-1 ⊥C: 0.0510 W·cm-1·K-1 

Optical Properties of Nd:YVO4 Crystal

Lasing Wavelength

914nm; 1064nm; 1342nm

Thermal Optical Coefficient (300K)

dno/dT=8.5×10-6/K
dne/dT=2.9×10-6/K 

Stimulated Emission Cross-section

25×10-19cm2 @ 1064nm

Fluorescent Lifetime

90μs (1% Nd doping)

Absorption Coefficient

31.4cm-1 @810nm

Intrinsic Loss

0.02cm-1 @1064nm

Gain Bandwidth

0.96nm @1064nm

Polarized Laser Emission

π polarization; parallel to optic axis (c-axis)

Diode Pumped Optical to Optical Efficiency

> 60%

Sellemeier Equations (λ in μm)

n02=3.77834+0.069736/(λ2-0.04724)-0.010813λ2
ne2=4.59905+0.110534/(λ2-0.04813)-0.012676λ2 

Laser Properties of Nd: YVO4

1. One of the most attractive character of Nd:YVO4 is, compared with Nd:YAG, it has 5 times larger absorption coefficient in a broader absorption bandwidth around the 808 nm peak pump wavelength, which just matches the standard of high power laser diodes currently available. This means a smaller Nd:YVO4 crystal that could be used for the laser, leading to a more compact laser system. For a given output power, this also means a lower power level at which the laser diode operates, thus extending the lifetime of the expensive laser diode. The broader absorption bandwidth of Nd:YVO4 which may reaches 2.4 to 6.3 times that of Nd:YAG, is also valuable. Besides more efficient pumping, Nd:YVO4 also means a broader range of selection of diode specifications. This will be helpful to laser system makers for wider tolerance and lower cost choice.
2. Nd:YVO4 crystal has larger stimulated emission cross-sections, both at 1064nm and 1342nm. When a-axis cut Nd:YVO4 crystal lasing at 1064m, it is about 4 times higher than that of Nd:YAG, while at 1340nm the stimulated cross-section is 18 times larger, which leads to a CW operation completely outperforming Nd:YAG at 1320nm. These make Nd:YVO4 laser be easy to maintain a strong single line emission at the two wavelengths.
3. Another important character of Nd:YVO4 lasers is, because it is an uniaxial rather than a high symmetry of cubic as Nd:YAG, what it emits is only a linearly polarized, thus avoiding undesired birefringent effects on the frequency conversion. Although the lifetime of Nd:YVO4 is about 2.7 times shorter than that of Nd:YAG, its slope efficiency can be still quite high for a proper design of laser cavity, because of its high pump quantum efficiency.
The major laser properties of Nd:YVO4 vs Nd:YAG are listed in Table below, including stimulated emission cross-sections (σ), Absorption Coefficient (α) Fluorescent lifetime (τ),Absorption Length (La),threshold Power (Pth) and Pump Quantum Efficiency (ηs)

Laser Properties of Nd: YVO4 vs Nd:YAG:

LASER CRYSTAL

DOPING(atm%)

σ
(x10-19cm2) 

α
(cm-1)

τ
(μs) 


(mm)

Pth
(mW) 

ηs
(%) 

Nd:YVO4(a-cut)

1.0
2.0 

25
25

31.2
72.4 

90
50

0.32
0.14 

30
78 

52
48.6

Nd:YVO4(c-cut)

1.1

7

9.2

90

 

231

45.5

Nd:YAG

0.85

6

7.1

230

1.41

115

38.6

Typical Results of Nd: YVO4:

Diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser output comparing with diode pumped Nd:YAG laser.

Crystals

Size(mm3)

Pump Power

Output (at 1064nm)

Nd:YVO4

3x3x1

850mW

350mW

Nd:YVO4

3x3x5

15W

6W

Nd:YAG

3x3x2

850mW

34mW

THATSHIGH Warranty on Nd:YVO4 Specifications:

Dimension tolerance:(W±0.1mm)x(H±0.1mm)x(L+0.5/-0.1mm) (L≥2.5mm)
(W±0.1mm)x(H±0.1mm)x(L+0.2/-0.1mm) (L<2.5mm)
Transmitting wavefront distortion:less than λ/4 @ 633nm
Clear aperture:>90% central area
Chamfer: ≤0.2mm@45degree
Chip: ≤0.1mm
Flatness: λ/8 @ 633 nm (L≥2.5mm), λ/4 @ 633nm (L<2.5mm)
Scratch/Dig code: 10/5 to MIL-PRF-13830B
Parallelism:better than 10arc seconds
Perpendicularity: ≤5 arc minutes
Angle tolerance:≤0.5°
Damage threshold[GW/cm2 ]: >1 for 1064nm, TEM00, 10ns, 10Hz (AR-coated)
Quality Warranty Period:one year under proper use.

THATSHIGH Coating Types of Nd:YVO4 Crystals

1. Both ends AR/AR @1064nm & 808nm [R<0.15% @1064nm, R<2% @808nm] 
2. S1: HR @1064nm & 532nm, HT @808nm [R>99.8% @1064nm & 532nm, T>90% @808nm]
  S2: AR@1064nm & 532nm [R<0.15% @1064nm, R<0.5%@532nm]
3. S1,S2: AR-coated; S3: gold/chrome plated.
4. Both ends AR/AR @1064nm[R<0.15% @1064nm]; S3: AR @808nm [R<2% @808nm]  

THATSHIGH Specifications for Nd:YVO4 Crystal :

Doping Concentration Nd

0.1% ~ 3% (atm%)

Dimension Tolerance

(W±0.1mm)×(H±0.1mm)×(L+0.5/-0.1mm)  (L≥2.5mm)

(W±0.1mm)×(H±0.1mm)×(L+0.2/-0.1mm)  (L<2.5mm)

Angle Tolerance

≤0.2°

Clear Aperture

>90% central area

Chamfer

≤0.2mm @ 45º

Wavefront Distortion

< λ/6 @633nm

Damage Threshold

>1 GW/cm2 @1064nm, TEM00, 10ns, 10Hz (AR-coated)

Flatness

λ/10 @ 633nm (L≥2.5mm); λ/8 @ 633nm (L<2.5mm)

Parallelism

< 10"

Perpendicularity

≤5′ 

Surface Quality [S/D]

10/5 

Chip

≤0.1mm



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